Trump impeachment inquiry: John Bolton plays hard ball, and more


Keeping track of the ongoing impeachment inquiry into President Trump's attempts to pressure Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky into investigating Vice President Joe Biden is an exhausting task. There are new developments breaking in the story every single day, and the president is regularly trying to distract from the issue by, say, tweeting through it. If you're feeling out of the loop regarding the latest news in the impeachment saga, here are three new developments that broke this week that will get you up to speed, along with the people you need to know.

The key players this week:

  • Adam Schiff, the Democratic chairman of the House Intelligence Committee. The California lawmaker has been central to the ongoing impeachment inquiry, leading the investigation, calling witnesses, and earning the frequent ire of the president.
  • Gordon Sondland, the U.S. ambassador to the European Union. As a longtime Republican donor and Trump appointee, the main offering of his initial testimony was that he said the president was “crystal clear, no quid pro quos of any kind” with Ukraine. In revised testimony this week, though, he blew up that line — which had been central to the president’s defense.
  • John Bolton, the former national security adviser. Bolton left the Trump administration in September, and at the time it was thought that the president’s attempts to negotiate with the Taliban were the final straw, after a series of disagreements over North Korea and Iran. But new information about dealings with Ukraine over the summer sheds new light on his departure.

1. Adam Schiff announces public hearings will begin next week.

The takeaway: After the House voted last week to establish the rules and terms of the impeachment inquiry, it thrust the investigation into a new phase. That began this week with the public release of transcripts from closed-door depositions, and it will continue next week as certain witnesses are called to testify for the second time — but this time before the public.

“These open hearings will be an opportunity for the American people to evaluate the witnesses for themselves,” Schiff said. With the inquiry now in a more public phase, Republicans will have increased ability to call their own witnesses, while Democrats are gambling they can make a case to the public that will bolster their political and electoral hopes.

The incriminating details: The transcripts released this week have put a finer point on many of the details revealed to the press in recent days, following the confidential testimonies of various witnesses. So far, investigators released the 375 pages of Sondland’s original October testimony, along with a three-page addendum provided this week (more on that below); the 324 pages provided by Bill Taylor, the U.S.’s top diplomat in Ukraine; the 340 pages detailing the words of Army Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman, the only witness who had first-hand knowledge of the Trump-Zelensky call; and the whopping 446 pages provided by Fiona Hill, the administration’s policy expert in Ukraine and the surrounding region.

While much from their depositions had already been made public via media reports, the official transcripts shed some light on the specifics offered by each person. The average person probably isn’t going to pore through nearly 1500 pages of legalese, but the transcripts will provide news reporters with direct quotes that they can put in front of readers. For Democrats, it’s all about making a case that voters can understand — and one that’s clear enough to justify this investigation in the first place, especially in a highly contentious election year.

What we still want to know: With public hearings set to begin next week, Democrats are gambling that their witnesses will be able to make the public get on board with the impeachment inquiry. But while the testimonies so far have made a splash in political circles, the reality is that aside from Bolton, none of the major witnesses are necessarily household names. For example, Taylor’s deposition is troubling for Trump because Taylor is a career diplomat who has worked for every administration since 1985 — but that only really matters to people who know that about him. To the average American, will watching a 72-year-old man in glasses and a suit talk about intricate foreign policy details sway their view of this president?

That’s why Democrats have especially sought to bring Bolton to Capitol Hill. He’s their best chance at putting a recognizable name in headlines, as he worked under the Reagan and Bush administrations and has a memorable mustachioed presence. But they may not be able to notch that win, either — we’ll get to that later.

2. Gordon Sondland updates his testimony — blowing a hole in Trump’s defense.

The takeaway: Since the beginning of the Ukraine inquiry, Trump has steadfastly maintained one stance: “No quid pro quo.” His evidence for this has varied — he wanted Ukraine to investigate general “corruption,” there can’t be a quid pro quo if the other side doesn’t know it’s being bribed, people should just read the transcript because the call was perfect — but Sondland’s initial 10-hour testimony last month provided one of his biggest defense lines. But in an updated statement provided to investigators Monday, Sondland confirmed that he had explicitly informed Ukrainian officials that provision of military aid was tied to their country opening up investigations that would be politically beneficial to Trump.

The incriminating details: As a political appointee, Sondland stood apart from many of the inquiry’s other witnesses who are career diplomats or government officials. That’s why when his original testimony was more favorable to Trump, it wasn’t particularly surprising — and why his reversal is all the more damning.

In his initial deposition, Sondland acknowledged that Rudy Giuliani, the president’s personal lawyer, was leading a foreign policy backchannel with Ukraine. He was adamant, however, that Trump had been “crystal clear” that there was no quid pro quo “of any kind” with Ukraine — a line Trump has touted time and time again as the backstop of his defense. On Monday, Sondland reversed that position, telling investigators that he’d merely been relaying what Trump had told him, not necessarily stating what he, Sondland, personally believed. He additionally explicitly acknowledged telling Ukrainian officials what was up: “I said that resumption of the U.S. aid would likely not occur until Ukraine provided the public anti-corruption statement that we had been discussing for many weeks.”

As we’ve said, Trump has repeatedly tried to paint his insistence on a Biden investigation as merely part of a larger “anti-corruption” stance. So what Sondland said Monday was that nearly $400 million of congressionally appropriated military aid to Ukraine was contingent upon that “anti-corruption statement” — aka, Zelensky publicly announcing a Biden probe. Sondland said that hearing about other witnesses’ testimonies had “refreshed [his] recollection” of the situation, which feels particularly notable given how many Democrats pointed out his frequent memory lapses the first time around.

What we still want to know: Sondland’s update didn’t provide new information, per se, but rather moved the ambassador more in line with his colleagues in diplomacy. Taylor had detailed in his own deposition how he eventually learned the aid money (as well as a White House meeting) was being held up in exchange for Trump-friendly favors from Zelensky, while Vindman, a national security expert working on Ukraine policy, offered his own first-hand knowledge of the Trump-Zelensky call and outlined why it “worried” him. Sondland has merely revised his testimony to more closely reflect theirs.

What remains to be seen is whether other wobbly Trump supporters may do the same. Yes, Sondland donated to Trump, but he had backed Jeb Bush and Florida Sen. Marco Rubio before hopping on the president’s gilded coattails. Staunch pro-Trumpers like Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina senator, may continue to plug their ears to inconvenient revelations. But Sondland’s reversal opens up the question of whether someone like Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, who so far has tried to straddle the line between Trump faithful and dutiful civil servant, might opt to be fully honest at Trump’s expense.

3. John Bolton teases knowledge of “many relevant meetings and conversations” about Ukraine.

The takeaway: After a week of intrigue about whether or not he’d speak to House investigators, Bolton’s lawyer told lawmakers that he’d talk — but only if a judge ruled that Bolton should disregard White House objections to testify. In his letter to the House, Bolton’s lawyer wrote that it makes sense investigators want to speak to him because he “was personally involved in many of the events, meetings, and conversations about which you have already received testimony, as well as many relevant meetings and conversations that have not yet been discussed.” Spicy!

The incriminating details: House Democrats have sought Bolton’s testimony for weeks, but he no-showed on a scheduled deposition Thursday because he wants a court to decide whether he should listen to the legislative branch (Congress), which wants him to meet with investigators, or the executive branch (Trump), which does not. As Trump’s national security adviser throughout the summer, Bolton would presumably have been intimately involved with the Ukraine affair.

In fact, multiple witnesses have mentioned Bolton during their own depositions, describing him as intensely troubled by Giuliani’s backchannel negotiations with Ukraine. Bolton described the linkage of the aid money and White House meeting to investigations as a “drug deal,” per Taylor’s testimony, while Hill testified that Bolton saw Giuliani as “a hand grenade who’s going to blow everybody up.” And that’s just what’s come out so far.

The Washington Post points out that while Bolton may be positioning himself as a key witness damaging to Trump, though,“he may have more to explain than other witnesses on whether he could have done more to stop a scheme he seemed to view as a shakedown.” He’s long held hard-line foreign policy views — including toward Russia, the looming figure in America’s Ukraine policy — but as a top White House national security official he also may have shirked a responsibility to stop what was unfolding in front of him.

What we still want to know: Democrats had initially signaled they wouldn’t pursue a subpoena to compel Bolton to appear, instead planning to paint Bolton’s absence as evidence Trump was obstructing their investigation — which is itself an impeachable action. But with the tantalizing knowledge that Bolton may have some bombshells to share, they may change their tune. The problem is that issuing a subpoena may open a protracted legal battle — something Democrats want to avoid so that the impeachment inquiry won’t drag into the 2020 election — and by dangling key information while forcing the judicial matter, Bolton has put Democrats in an uncomfortable spot.

Bolton’s lawyer made clear that Bolton wants a court to rule that he, specifically, should defy the White House to speak with investigators. The lawyer signaled that Bolton wouldn’t be swayed by a pending ruling about whether the White House counsel, Don McGahn, must testify, because Bolton’s testimony would include sensitive national security information that someone else’s would not. The challenge is clear: “If the House chooses not to pursue through subpoena [Bolton’s] testimony,” Bolton’s lawyer wrote, “let the record be clear: That is the House’s decision.”

—Kimberly Alters


The key players this week:

  • Alexander Vindman, an active duty lieutenant colonel in the Army and the ranking Ukraine expert on the National Security Council. He migrated from Ukraine at the age of 3 and received a Purple Heart after being injured by an IED while serving in Iraq. As a member of the NSC, he listened firsthand to the infamous July 25 call.
  • Nancy Pelosi, the House speaker. She’s a key architect of the Democrats’ impeachment strategy. She called the Thursday vote to establish rules for the impeachment inquiry — the first time that the House has gone on record about the Trump impeachment.
  • Tim Morrison, formerly the top Russia adviser on the National Security Council. He stepped down shortly before his testimony to House impeachment investigators Thursday. A former Naval Reserve intelligence officer and a lawyer, he is known as a conservative foreign policy hawk.

1. Alexander Vindman offers the first firsthand testimony of the Ukraine call.

The takeaway: As one of the government’s foremost experts on Ukraine, Vindman testified that he was deeply concerned by Trump’s call with Zelensky. He also testified that the White House edited out damning phrases from the call in the version of the transcript it released to the public. As a decorated Iraq war veteran, active duty soldier, and national security official with firsthand knowledge of the Zelensky call, his testimony carried extra weight.

The incriminating details: Vindman is a nonpartisan official with an unimpeachable military background. That’s hard to attack. Flailing Republicans, trying to undercut and distract from the substance of Vindman’s testimony, ended up smearing a war hero with bizarre claims that he was a double agent because he was born in Ukraine. Many prominent Republicans ended up backing away from these claims; Utah Sen. Mitt Romney blasted the attacks as “absurd.”

Vindman was so disturbed by Trump pressuring Ukraine to smear Biden that he reported it to his superiors at the NSC on two occasions, he told investigators. "I did not think it was proper to demand that a foreign government investigate a U.S. citizen, and I was worried about the implications for the U.S. government's support of Ukraine," Vindman said in his opening statement.

Additionally, according to The New York Times, Vindman testified that the officially released summary transcript omitted several key details, including that Trump claimed on the call to have recordings of Biden talking about Ukraine and that Zelensky specifically talked to Trump about Burisma, the Ukranian gas company that Biden’s son Hunter did work with. This implies that the White House understood just how damning these details were, and wanted to intentionally avoid them when they released the transcript.

What we still want to know: We need to see exactly which words and phrases were omitted from the transcript. Republicans including Wisconsin Sen. Ron Johnson have claimed that the edits wouldn’t sway him from the belief that Trump’s conduct was not impeachable, but that’s something the American people ought to be able to judge for themselves, too.

2. Nancy Pelosi holds a House vote, launching the inquiry into a more public phase.

The takeaway: The House voted 232-196 — almost exactly along party lines — to endorse the impeachment rules that Pelosi set forward. (Michigan Rep. Justin Amash, the Republican-turned-independent Trump critic, also voted to continue the process.) Two Democrats, both in swing districts that heavily supported Trump in 2016, voted against the rules, as did every Republican. That will allow investigators to interview some witnesses in public, rather than behind closed doors as had been the case thus far.

The incriminating details: On one level, the vote is routine, establishing the procedures and guidelines by which witnesses will be called to testify before the House. But it’s also deeply symbolic, as it’s the first time that a vote endorsing the Trump impeachment inquiry has been entered into the public record in the House. Only six weeks ago, such an outcome appeared unlikely, with many Democrats in moderate districts fearful of endorsing something as controversial as impeachment. Now, Pelosi has united the party behind the proceedings.

Expect Republicans to engage in increasingly Jackass-tier stunts as the investigation goes public. Last week, Florida Rep. Matt Gaetz led a quixotic charge into a secure room where investigators were interviewing witness Laura Cooper, a Pentagon official in charge of Ukraine policy. The incident was designed to disrupt the process rather than defend against the substance; with more of the investigation happening in public, a live TV platform is only likely to encourage this defense strategy.

Still, the fact that so many Democrats voted in favor of the resolution indicates that even moderates largely feel confident enough in the facts they’ve gathered to move into a crucial new phase of the inquiry, where they will begin calling witnesses publicly. Republicans have attacked the secrecy of it all, but with more of the investigation set to happen before the public eye, they’ll have to come up with new lines of attack.

What we still want to know: Much depends on how many witnesses agree to testify in public. If Democrats are able to present a steady stream of highly regarded officials describing clear misconduct by the president and his lackeys, they’ll be able to drown out Republican complaints about process and other attempts to derail their inquiry. U.S. diplomat Bill Taylor, a key witness, has said that he would "fulfill his duty" and testify in public if asked, according to CNN. Others, like former National Security Adviser John Bolton, have said they won’t testify willingly, and will require a subpoena. If a critical mass of key witnesses agree to testify, though, the resulting political theater is more likely to break through to the general public than the leaked reports that have emerged so far.

3. Tim Morrison’s deposition gives the Trump defense some hope.

The takeaway: Tim Morrison is the first person appointed by Trump to testify in the inquiry. He resigned from his position on the National Security Council shortly before appearing before the House. Taylor had previously described Morrison’s role in the events surrounding the July 25 call, testifying that when the two were discussing the military aid to Ukraine being withheld, Morrison told him that the “president doesn’t want to provide any assistance at all.”

Taylor also said that on Sept. 7, Morrison described to him a conversation he’d had with U.S. Ambassador Gordon Sondland that had given him a “sinking feeling.” On the call, Sondland said that Trump wanted Zelensky to “go to a microphone and say he is opening investigations of Biden and 2016 election interference,” according to Taylor.

Unlike some of the other witnesses, Taylor is an openly partisan Republican known for his hawkishness, and he was a Trump appointee. So it’s not altogether surprising that his testimony was more favorable to Trump than that of others. "I want to be clear, I was not concerned that anything illegal was discussed [on the July 25 call]," he testified.

The incriminating details: Some Republicans have portrayed Morrison’s testimony as a win for the president. In addition to saying he felt nothing illegal had occurred, Morrison reportedly said that he felt that the transcript released by the White House was accurate, contradicting Vindman’s statement. “Morrison’s testimony is very damaging to the Democrat narrative,” said North Carolina Rep. Mark Meadows, the former leader of the House’s right-wing Freedom Caucus.

But Republicans framing Morrison’s testimony as 100% positive for the president may need to adjust their rose-colored glasses. The Washington Post reported that Morrison confirmed the substance of Taylor’s testimony, saying that he did tell Taylor that Trump was seeking to withhold a White House visit for Zelensky, as well as military aid, until Zelensky agreed to investigate Biden and supposed 2016 election interference by Ukraine. He also confirmed the Sept. 7 phone call about his “sinking feeling.”

In other words, Morrison, a right-wing Trump appointee, confirmed the overarching details of the suspected quid pro quo at the center of the impeachment investigation. Furthermore, while Morrison may have said he didn’t feel that Trump’s conduct was illegal, per the Post he was still troubled enough by it to file reports about the call to the National Security Council — just as Vindman had done.

What we still want to know: As the impeachment inquiry moves into its public phase, Republicans will likely use Morrison’s refusal to characterize the president’s conduct as illegal as a cudgel to attack the investigation. This could be a double-edged sword for them, however: If they hang a lot of importance on Morrison, they are committing themselves to defending the quid pro quo that he corroborated. So far, the president’s defenders have strenuously denied the existence of any such arrangement.

Morrison’s testimony could potentially cause Republicans to paint themselves into a corner of arguing that yes, the president withheld military aid to pursue domestic political goals, but no, that’s neither illegal nor impeachable. It could be a strong enough argument to rally Republican support in the Senate, where Democrats would need to win over some GOP votes to remove the president from office, should an impeachment trial take place. Whether it can convince the American public to back the Republican Party at the ballot box in 2020 is another matter entirely.

—Ezra Marcus


The key players this week:

  • Bill Taylor, an American diplomat. He’s a career foreign service official who has served under every president since 1985, including as the U.S. ambassador to Ukraine under President George W. Bush. Under Trump, he was the top diplomat in Ukraine, officially in charge of directing American strategy in the country.
  • Laura Cooper, a top Pentagon official. As a deputy assistant secretary of defense, she was charged with overseeing U.S. policy in Ukraine, as well as other regional powers like Russia and the Western Balkans.
  • Matt Gaetz, a Republican congressman from Florida. He’s been a staunch defender of the president — and in turn has benefited from Trump’s frequent praise.

1. Bill Taylor’s Ukraine testimony blows up Trump’s main defense.

The takeaway: Taylor testified to House impeachment investigators on Tuesday. The session happened behind closed doors, but his 15-page opening statement was acquired by the media. It’s incredibly detailed — it reportedly took him the better part of an hour to read aloud — and what it reveals is decidedly not good for Trump’s case.

The incriminating details: Mic broke down the five biggest takeaways from Taylor’s opening statement here. His testimony was bad for Trump in all sorts of ways; for starters, Taylor has worked for every president since 1985, so it’s hard to paint him as a partisan looking to take Trump down.

Above all, the biggest problem for Trump is how Taylor made clear that there were two channels working on the administration’s Ukraine policy: one “regular” channel, which involved Taylor and other State Department officials, and another “irregular” channel led mainly by Rudy Giuliani, Trump’s personal lawyer who has no official position in U.S. government. Giuliani, joined by U.S. Ambassador Gordon Sondland and former diplomat Kurt Volker in the “irregular” channel, was working to pressure Ukraine’s president to open a series of investigations that would benefit Trump politically, using $400 million in aid money as leverage.

The aid money is key here. The impeachment inquiry has centered on whether Trump inappropriately withheld aid money from Ukraine until Zelensky agreed to open the investigations. Trump has argued alternately that he withheld the money:

Taylor stated clearly that people working in the “irregular” channel for Trump understood that the aid money would only be given if Zelensky agreed to publicly open investigations into Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter. He further confirmed that the Ukrainians learned the money was being withheld, and why, which undermines Trump’s defense that it couldn’t be a bribe if they didn’t know it was happening.

What we still want to know: Most of the information thus far has come from Taylor’s written opening statement. But he spent nearly 10 hours being deposed behind closed doors, so there’s surely more he told lawmakers in the confidential setting. Some Republicans, like South Dakota Sen. John Thune — the No. 2 Republican in the upper chamber — have already acknowledged that what’s been publicly reported from Taylor’s testimony did not bode well for Trump. “The picture coming out of it,” Thune told reporters, “is not a good one.”

2. Matt Gaetz and a group of GOP lawmakers derail the closed-door testimony of Laura Cooper.

The takeaway: Gaetz, in a stunt essentially engineered for Fox News, led a group of more than 20 Republican congressmen to disrupt Cooper’s closed-door testimony Wednesday. The idea was to call attention to what Republicans see as an unjust process; because House Speaker Nancy Pelosi has not held a vote on the full House floor to authorize the impeachment inquiry, Republicans as the minority party do not have subpoena power to call their own witnesses or seek information. Additionally, only representatives who sit on the investigating committees have access to the information revealed in the closed-door depositions.

The incriminating details: Cooper’s testimony focused mostly on policy minutiae. Democrats had sought her input because any disbursal of aide to Ukraine would have been done under her supervision. Per CNN, “several lawmakers say her testimony helped show that the Ukraine aid deviated” from the “normal process” of granting military aid that had already been appropriated by Congress. Cooper defied a request from the Trump administration that she refused to testify.

Gaetz’s stunt succeeded in delaying Cooper’s testimony by five hours. But in the process, the GOP lawmakers possibly jeopardized national security by bringing cell phones into the SCIF — sensitive compartmented information facility — where the interview was taking place. Such devices are not permitted in those secure areas, and The Daily Beast reported that the room was being “swept for electronic surveillance devices” as a result of the breach.

What we still want to know: Some see stunts like Gaetz’s, alongside House Republicans’ attempt to censure Democratic Rep. Adam Schiff, who as chairman of the House Intelligence Committee is leading the impeachment investigation, as evidence that Republicans can’t defend the president on the substance of the investigation so they’re attacking the process instead. Pelosi had declined to bring impeachment before the full House so as to avoid putting vulnerable Democrats on the spot in an election year, but as the GOP zeroes in on its attack line and the probe threatens to stretch throughout the fall, it’s unclear whether Pelosi may shift her thinking.

3. Republicans start to question Trump’s strategy.

The takeaway: Trump has so far declined to establish an impeachment “war room” — a dedicated team in charge of handling the tricky legal and public maneuvers of battling an impeachment inquiry — instead opting to be his own best messenger. But after inconsistencies in the White House’s stance, including a disastrous showing by acting Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney last week, some Republicans are starting to wonder whether it’s time the administration develop a more cogent strategy.

The incriminating details: President Bill Clinton had a team of such experts in place during his impeachment process so that he could, ostensibly, focus on the main business of running the country while that staff handled the administration’s messaging. Trump has instead been his White House’s “only empowered communicator, a one-man war room responding to developments hour by hour,” The New York Times said. That’s meant that much of the administration’s response has been characterized by the president’s Twitter feed.

On Thursday, South Carolina Sen. Lindsey Graham — one of Trump’s fiercest supporters on Capitol Hill — told reporters that he’d spoken with Mulvaney about “getting a messaging team together.” He’d said Wednesday that the White House was “missing” a “coordinated effort to put somebody in charge of developing a message and delivering it.” An adviser on Trump’s 2016 campaign similarly said he “would love to see more strategy.” Even Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has disputed some of the president’s defense, saying he had never told spoken to Trump about his July 25 phone call with Zelensky as Trump had claimed.

What we still want to know: Trump had made Giuliani one of his top defenders in the inquiry’s early days, but his lawyer has only gotten more ensnared in the investigation over time. With the lack of coherent messaging from the top, Republicans have started to show signs of division, between those who have acknowledged that the facts don’t look great for Trump, those who have urged the president to rethink his strategy, and those who will never break with him. If the White House doesn’t roll out consistent talking points, it’s possible the door could stay open for skeptical lawmakers to shy away from defending Trump.

—Kimberly Alters


1. Two more Trump associates testify to Congress.

As House Democrats’ impeachment inquiry churns on, more and more Trumpworld affiliates are being called to testify. On Monday, former national security official Fiona Hill met with congressional staff and offered two main disclosures. First, she said that in a July 10 meeting with Ukrainian officials, U.S. Ambassador Gordon Sondland mentioned probing the Bidens in a way that left “no doubt that he wanted the Ukrainians to look into” the family, per Vox. The meeting apparently so spooked John Bolton, the former national security adviser who left his post last month, that he subsequently asked Hill to alert a White House lawyer to the discussion.

Hill’s second notable revelation was that she reportedly asked Sondland — the American envoy to the European Union — who had directed him to lead the administration’s Ukraine strategy, given that it wouldn’t naturally be part of the portfolio for someone in his position. Sondland reportedly replied that he was acting on orders from the president.

Sondland himself also met with House investigators this week, after his scheduled appearance last week was blocked by the State Department. In his opening remarks, obtained by The Wall Street Journal, Sondland confirmed the central role of Rudy Giuliani, Trump’s personal lawyer, in directing the affairs in Ukraine. “It was apparent to all of us that the key to changing the president’s mind on Ukraine was Mr. Giuliani,” Sondland reportedly said, distancing himself from Giuliani by adding that he “would not have recommended” that Giuliani “be involved in these foreign policy matters,” but that it came at “the president’s explicit direction.” The ambassador also indicated that Giuliani dangled a White House visit for Zelensky — but only if the Ukrainians launched a Biden investigation.

But while Sondland apparently tried to put distance between his stance and the president’s, his testimony did not go unquestioned. Sondland had “a lot of memory lapses,” one lawmaker who was present quipped to NBC News, while Democratic Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (Fla.) said that “some of the things that he says he doesn’t remember, it would be very hard to believe he didn’t remember … unless he has the worst memory, or is, you know, far more incompetent than one would think an ambassador to the European Union should be.”

2. Nancy Pelosi declines to call a full House vote on impeachment — and dials back Mitch McConnell’s ambitious timeline.

On Tuesday, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) announced that she would not call a full chamber vote to authorize the impeachment inquiry against Trump. Pelosi officially announced the inquiry was underway last month, but rather than initiate the process via a vote on the House floor, she simply directed six House committees to continue their investigations under the umbrella of a formal impeachment inquiry.

Politico reported that there was some disagreement within Pelosi’s leadership team as to whether to hold the vote. If the full House did approve the inquiry, it would grant Republicans subpoena power to call their own witnesses or seek information, something can’t do now as the minority. It would have additionally forced vulnerable Democrats (and Republicans) to go on the record with their stance on impeachment, a politically risky move with an election looming next year. In announcing her decision, Pelosi said, “We’re not here to call bluffs. We’re here to find the truth.” A vote would, however, have undermined one of the White House’s central reasons for refusing to cooperate with the probe.

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) on Tuesday told members of his caucus that he expected the House to bring articles of impeachment by Thanksgiving, per Vox, with a trial ideally concluding by the end of the year. Pelosi, however, pumped the brakes on that schedule, saying that “the timeline will depend on the truth-line.”

3. Mick Mulvaney confirms — then tries to un-confirm — a central piece of the Ukraine scandal.

While the president was in Texas, the vice president and the secretary of state were in Turkey, — and the energy secretary was in his prolonged state of almost-but-not-quite-resigning — Acting Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney was left to face reporters. At a rather eye-opening press briefing on Thursday, in an attempt to defend Trump’s actions with respect to Ukraine, Mulvaney ended up confirming a central tenet of the Democrats’ inquiry: that Trump used aid money as leverage to pressure the country into investigating false claims of corruption by the Bidens.

ABC News’s Jon Karl initially questioned Mulvaney about Trump’s offhand encouragement of China to investigate the Bidens — on claims that are, again, specious. Mulvaney responded by saying that Trump has never been a fan of giving foreign aid, adding that Trump “did not like” that a White House analysis determined that “near zero” European dollars flow to Ukraine for “lethal aid” while the U.S. gives millions. “Those were the driving factors,” Mulvaney said, but unfortunately for him he didn’t stop there.

The White House on YouTube

“Did he also mention to me in the past the corruption related to the [Democratic National Committee] server?” he continued, referring to a debunked conspiracy theory that Ukraine colluded with Democrats during the 2016 election. “Absolutely. No question about that. But that’s it, and that’s why we held up the money.” Karl interjected to confirm that Trump had mentioned wanting an investigation into the Democratic server when directing Mulvaney to freeze the aid money, and Mulvaney responded that yes, Trump wanted a “lookback” into 2016, “and that is absolutely appropriate.”

Karl, stunned, replied, “To be clear, what you just described is a quid pro quo. It is: Funding will not flow unless the investigation into the Democratic server happens as well.” Mulvaney was undeterred: “We do that all the time with foreign policy,” he said. “Get over it.” Apparently unable to “get over it” himself even hours later, Mulvaney attempted to reverse his comments Thursday evening, saying “there was absolutely no quid pro quo between Ukrainian military aid and any investigation into the 2016 election.”

—Kimberly Alters


1. Two men suspected of helping Rudy Giuliani's shadow operation in Ukraine were arrested in D.C.

On Wednesday, two associates of Rudy Giuliani, Trump's personal attorney, were arrested. Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman were taken into custody at Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C., and charged with campaign finance violations. The two were allegedly scheming to funnel foreign money to politicians in the United States, focusing much of their efforts on trying to influence relations between the U.S. and Ukraine.

Parnas and Fruman were reportedly involved in a plan, along with Energy Secretary Rick Perry, to pressure the president of Ukraine to replace members of a natural gas company owned by the state with Americans and others more friendly to the industry. The two are also accused of donating money to a member of the House while attempting to get the congressman to remove the U.S. ambassador to Ukraine from her post. (Perry, for his part, was hit with a subpoena Thursday from House Democrats seeking information about Trump's infamous July phone call with Zelensky.)

Why does all of this matter for the impeachment inquiry? Parnas and Fruman were business associates of Giuliani, who was working on Trump's behalf to encourage the Ukrainian government to open up an investigation into Biden's son Hunter. Giuliani has described the two men as "fixers" and said in an interview that they "helped me find people" when asked about his relationship with them. He also admitted to playing a role in the ouster of U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch — a goal he apparently shared with Parnas and Fruman. Giuliani was not mentioned in the indictment against Parnas and Fruman, but The Washington Post reported that federal agents are looking into his dealings with the two alleged criminals.

2. Marie Yovanovitch, the former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, testifies before the House.

Meanwhile, Yovanovitch testified to impeachment investigators Friday. She was abruptly removed from her post earlier this year, and during the closed-door session Friday, she reportedly told investigators that a State Department official said she had "done nothing wrong" and that her removal from her position was unwarranted. According to The New York Times, Yovanovitch testified that her ouster was “based, as far as I can tell, on unfounded and false claims by people with clearly questionable motives.”

Yovanovitch served as the U.S. envoy to Ukraine from Aug. 29, 2016 until May 20, 2019 when she was suddenly asked to return to the U.S. — despite receiving a request from the State Department to extend her service through 2020. Her removal from the position apparently came because Trump "lost confidence" in her, though she told investigators that there had been “a concerted campaign against me, and that the department had been under pressure from [Trump] to remove me since the summer of 2018.”

While it took some time for Yovanovitch to be dismissed, the end of her time as ambassador was foreshadowed earlier this year, when in an interview Ukraine's then-Prosecutor General Yuri Lutsenko claimed that his country's government had cooperated with Hillary Clinton's 2016 campaign in an effort to undermine Trump. Lutsenko, who is under investigation himself for possible abuses of power, alleged per The Hill that Yovanovitch was "interfering with his ability to prosecute corruption cases."

Yovanovitch denied ever being involved in efforts to hinder corruption investigations in Ukraine, a claim that State Department officials support. The agency has also called Lutsenko’s allegations against Yovanovitch “an outright fabrication.” The former ambassador also said she played no role in the withholding of American aid, which was destined for Ukraine before being frozen by Trump in an apparent effort to get the Ukrainian government to investigate the Bidens. Her indictment of the president and his foreign policy dealings could serve to fuel investigations into possible wrongdoings committed by Trump and his associates.

3. U.S. Ambassador Gordon Sondland agrees to face House investigators, defying White House.

Following Yovanovitch's testimony Friday, another ambassador has agreed to speak with impeachment investigators next week. Gordon Sondland, the U.S. Ambassador to the European Union, has agreed to face members of the House next Thursday. Sondland became a person of interest in the Ukraine investigation following the release of text messages that show he exchanged messages with Kurt Volker, the former U.S. special envoy to Ukraine, regarding the Trump administration's desires in the country. Sondland is believed to have played a role in setting up the call between Zelensky and Trump.

Sondland's testimony is of particular interest because of the Trump administration's attempts to keep him from speaking to investigators. Earlier this week, the State Department ordered Sondland not to testify despite being served a subpoena. While Sondland will finally speak next week, he is still refusing to release documents requested by House investigators, claiming that they are property of the State Department. His communications with other diplomats may play a role in determining whether Trump attempted to withhold aid in a direct attempt to push a foreign government to investigate a political opponent in Biden.

—AJ Dellinger

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